1Jean Baudrillard, “The Ecstasy of Communication,” The Anti-Aesthetic: Essays on Postmodern Culture, ed. Hal Foster (Port Townsend, Washington: Bay Press, 1983) 130.

2Roland Barthes, “The Death of the Author,” Image-Music-Text 144. “By entrusting the hand with the task of writing as quickly as possible what the head itself is unaware of (automatic writing), the image of the author is diminished.”

3Denis Hollier, Against Architecture: The Writings of George Bataille (Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1989) xiii, 47. Gary is a sacrifice. There is no religion without sacrifice. There is no architecture without death. There is no beauty without blood. (Hollier xiii). What is most amazing about Gary is that is a gaping wound, a visible casualty. No attempt has been made to cover up the crime. “Society covers up the site of the crime with discreet monuments to make it be forgotten. Architecture does not express the soul of societies, but rather smothers it.” (Hollier 47).

4Baudrillard, “The Ecstasy of Communication” 130-131.

5Massimo Cacciari, Architecture and Philosophy: On the Philosophy of Modern Architecture (New Haven: Yale, 1993) 199.

6Jean Baudrillard, America (New York: 1988) 17.

7Baudrillard, America 17.

8Collin Rowe and Fred Koetter, “Collage City,” Theorizing a New Agenda For Architecture: An Anthology of Architectural Theory 1965-1995, ed. Kate Nesbitt.(New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1996) 268.

9Paul Virilio, Pure War, qtd in Stan Allen and Marc Hacker, “Scoring the City: The Hollargraph,” The London Project (New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1988) 7.1. “The city was the means of mapping out a political space that existed in a given political duration. Now speed- ubiquity, instantaneousness – dissolves the city, or rather displaces it, in time. We have entered another kind of capital which corresponds to another kind of population. We no longer populate stationariness (cities as great parking lots for populations), we populate the time spent changing place, travel time.”

10Rowe and Koetter, “Collage City” 284. The city is the result of these objects’ conflicting interests.

11Nan Ellin, Postmodern Urbanism (Cambridge: Blackwell Publishers, 1996) 189. “As long as architects and planners seek technical and creative solutions to social problems in pursuit of progress, they continue to pursue the modern project.”

12David Bohm qtd. in Jachna, “Appendix,” An Evolutionary Architecture. Frazer, John ed. (London: Architectural Association, 1995) 117.

13Hollier 71-73. Simple beings have no right to being because they have no identity, they do not realize they are being. Complex beings have no right to being because they have an identity, which necessarily separates them from the world, from being. This is what Bataille terms the Labyrinth. It is our attempt to become beings, to straddle the line and both be and become at the same time which is what we continually strive for. But it is impossible.

14Hollier xii.

15Art is the realization of this now. Art is being. Art is perception. Art is not the object. Art does not facilitate thought; it only facilitates apprehension. Art allows us to be by depriving us of meaning and submerging us with experience. Music is a great example of art. Life can be art to the extent that we force ourselves to give up thought and meaning and embrace direct perception.

16Bergson qtd. in Mary Cleugh, Time and Its Importance in Modern Thought (Oxford: Oxford Press, 1979) 112.

17Alan Watts, Zen: the Eternal Now, recording, New York, 1973.

18Bergson qtd. in Stephen Kern, The Culture of Time and Space 1880-1918 (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1983) 26.

19Barthes, “The Death of the Author” 145.

20Adolf Loos, “Architecture,” The Architecture of Adolf Loos, ed. Yehuda Safran (London: Arts Council of Great Britain, 1985) 104. “Thus I ask: why is it that every architect, whether good or bad, desecrates the lake? The farmer does not desecrate it, neither does the engineer, or he who draws deep grooves in the clear surface of the lake with his ship. They create in a different way. The farmer has marked out the spot from which the new house is to rise, and has excavated the earth for the foundations. The mason appears?. And while the mason lays brick upon brick, stone upon stone, the carpenter has taken up his position next to him. The strokes of the axe make a cheerful sound. He builds the roof. What kind of a roof? A beautiful one or an ugly one? He does not know. It is a roof!”

21Jean Baudrillard, Simulacra and Simulation (Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press, 1994) 12.

22Plastic surgery is a choice for design.

23Koolhaas, S,M,L,XL 969.

24Baudrillard, Simulacra and Simulation 8.

25K. S. Malevich, Essays On Art: 1915-1933, vol. 1, ed. Troels Andersen (London: Rapp & Whiting, 1968) 39.

26Cacciari 204.

27Jean Baudrillard, The Evil Demon of Images (Sydney, Australia: Power Institute of Fine Arts, University of Sydney, 1988) 41.

28Michael Graves, “A Case For Figurative Architecture,” Theorizing a New Agenda For Architecture: An Anthology of Architectural Theory 1965-1995, ed. Kate Nesbitt (New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1996). 87.

29Ada Louise Huxtable, The Unreal America: Architecture and Illusion (New York: The New Press, 1997) 115. Eco suggests that the reproduction corrupts the original work. However, Eco stops short of suggesting that the reproduction of ourselves corrupts ourselves. For example, Eco explains how a Van Gogh painting has been reproduced by a wax museum in three dimensions complete with chairs, bed, small paintings, and the tormented and disease infested Van Gogh. But Eco does not discuss how the original painting was also a reproduction: a distorted reproduction of reality. Does not the reproduction of reality corrupt reality? (Umberto Eco, “Travels in Hyperreality,” Travels in Hyperreality: Essays (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1986) 20).

30Hollier 32.

31Frampton qtd. in Kate Nesbitt, “Introduction,” Theorizing a New Agenda For Architecture: An Anthology of Architectural Theory 1965-1995, ed. Kate Nesbitt (New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1996) 440.

32“The birth of the reader must be at the death of the author.” Barthes, “The Death of the Author” 148.

33Barthes “The Death of the Author,” 147.

34Hollier 55.

35Tafuri qtd. in Loos “Architecture,” 84.

36Schulze, Franz Mies van der Rohe: Critical Essays. (Cambidge: The MIT Press, 1989) 13.

37Gevork Hartoonian, Ontology of Construction: On Nihilism of Technology in Theories of Modern Architecture (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994) 72.

38Baudrillard “The Ecstasy of Communication,” 127.

39Hollier 72.

40Pawley qtd. in Nan Ellin, Postmodern Urbanism (Cambridge: Blackwell Publishers, 1996) 111. “In a sense choices made by the peoples of the West – for the private car and against public transport, for suburban life and against urban or rural community, for owner occupation and against tenancy, for the nuclear and against the extended family, for television and against the cinema and the theater, for social mobility and against class solidarity, for private affluence and against community life, for machine politicians and against charismatic leaders, for orgasm, and against conception, for eroticism and against reproducation, for pollution and against regulation – all these are choices in favour of privacy, in favour of individual freedom, in favour of anonymity, but against the very idea of community.”

41Wayne Attoe and Donn Logan, American Urban Architecture: Catalysts in the Design of Cities (Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1989) 12.

42Allen and Hacker 7.2.

43Attoe and Logan American Urban Architecture: Catalysts in the Design of Cities, 10.

44Lebbeus Woods, Anarchitecture: Architecture is a Political Act (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1992) 16.

45Superstudio qtd in Colin Rowe and Fred Koetter, Collage City (Cambridge: The MIT Press) 44.

46Yves Klein, Institute for the Arts, Rice University, Yves Klein: 1928-1962, A Retrospective (New York: The Arts Publisher, Inc., 1982) 233.

47Klein 218.

48Dickran Tashjian, Skyscraper Primitives: Dada and the American Avante-Garde, 1910-1925 (Connecticut: Wesleyan University Press, 1975) 10.

49Woods 16.

50Dadaists’ belief, Europe After the Rain.

51Tashjian x.

52Duchamp, Europe After the Rain.

53Tashjian 12.

54Klein 231.

55Malevich qtd in Klein.


abstract difference objectification effect network life technical systems appendix